Zambia has a rich culture and rising population, and while much of the population lives in rural areas, urbanization is rising rapidly. Despite efforts to diversify the economy from mining and build stronger agricultural and manufacturing sectors, these sectors still contribute the least to Zambia's prosperity. Poverty levels remain high with marked inequalities between rural and urban areas.

35 Philanthropy Organizations Mobilized

Mobilization

The SDG Philanthropy Platform has a thematic focus on the well-being of children in Zambia, and has brought together 23 foundations and 12 large faith based organizations for this work. The Platform brings global and local philanthropy to be embedded into the new national development plan, which is focused on SDGs.

4 Collaborative Pathways Identified

Pathways

Four collaborative pathways for innovative solutions to address the well-being of children have been identified: changing attitudes of traditional leaders and communities to reduce teenage pregnancies and prevent child marriages, real time service tracking and response for child services at the community level, supporting young mothers to meet their economic needs to improve their investments in their children, and using community-based service delivery models to improve the wellbeing of children.

3 Innovative Projects Funded

Innovation

Three innovative initiatives, spearheaded by three faith-based organizations (FBOs): The Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), Norwegian Church Aid (NCA), and the Council of Churches in Zambia (CCZ), have been awarded up to $40,000 to work on collaborative pathways to improve the wellbeing of children in Zambia.

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Progress and SDG Priorities

What's on the SDG agenda for Zambia? How has its development agenda evolved in response to past achievements?

End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Progress:

  • Decline in extreme poverty, but at a slow pace (National Poverty Incidence 54.4%)
  • Strengthened social protection interventions: social cash transfer, school feeding and the food security pack, targeting the extreme poor and vulnerable households

Challenges:

  • High inequality rates (Gini Coefficient: 0.69 in 2015)
  • High poverty rates in rural areas (Rural: 76.6 Urban: 23.4%)

SDG Priorities:

  • Addressing inequalities between rural and urban areas
  • Implementing nationally appropriate social protection systems to reach the poor and vulnerable

End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Progress:

  • Decline in extreme poverty, but at a slow pace (National Poverty Incidence 54.4%)
  • Strengthened social protection interventions: social cash transfer, school feeding and the food security pack, targeting the extreme poor and vulnerable households

Challenges:

  • High inequality rates (Gini Coefficient: 0.69 in 2015)
  • High poverty rates in rural areas (Rural: 76.6 Urban: 23.4%)

SDG Priorities:

  • Addressing inequalities between rural and urban areas
  • Implementing nationally appropriate social protection systems to reach the poor and vulnerable

End hunger, achieve food security, improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Progress:

  • Implementation of social protection interventions including the social cash transfer, school feeding, and food security pack targeting extreme poor and vulnerable households
  • Implementation of Farmer Input Support Programme to help small-scale farmers ensure their own domestic food security and graduation

Challenges:

  • High stunting, wasting, and underweight levels (40%, 6%, 15%, respectively in 2013-14)
  • Some social protection schemes only reached a marginal proportion of the poor and vulnerable, many left behind
  • Poor targeting of recipients and inefficiencies in ensuring timely supply of inputs

SDG priorities:

  • Improving targeting of social protection interventions to ensure they reach the poorest and most vulnerable
  • Improving feeding and nutrition practices and programmes
  • Improving targeting of the beneficiaries and efficiency of the Farmer Input Support Programme
  • Improving on-farm agricultural productivity and linking rural and poor farmers to markets
  • Modernizing the agriculture sector and prioritizing value addition

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Progress:

  • Improvements in reducing infant mortality rates (95 to 45 deaths per 1,000 live births from 2007 to 2013-14)
  • Improvements in immunization coverage, breast-feeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation, malaria prevention and treatment
  • Decline in maternal mortality rates (398 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013-14 down from 591)
  • Drop in HIV prevalence rate (14.3% in 2007, 13.3% in 2013-14)
  • Improvement in control and prevention of malaria

Challenges:

  • Infant mortality rate remains very high 
  • Maternal mortality rate remains very high
  • Difficulties in accessing health facilities in rural areas
  • Difficulties in controlling malaria and related deaths
  • Difficulties in lowering the prevalence of HIV/AIDS coupled with uneven progress between genders and regions
  • Rise in non-communicable diseases
  • Improperly skilled health workforce

SDG priorities:

  • Improving access to quality health care – improving health service delivery, increasing infrastructure development, expanding health workforce, building more health facilities
  • Accelerating human resource outputs, recruitment, and retention
  • Promoting private sector participation in health care delivery
  • Upscaling interventions in maternal education, nutritional status, contraception for birth spacing, prevention of early marriages
  • Improving referral systems, provision/access to emergency obstetric care, deployment of better trained midwifes & birth attendees
  • Creating domestic model for financing HIV/AIDS interventions
  • Addressing increase in non-communicable diseases
  • Accelerating fertility reduction and improving child survival interventions
  • Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improving child nutrition
     

Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

Progress:

  • Improvement in achieving universal primary education (primary education net enrollment rate 89% in 2015)
  • Increased investments in education, introduction of free primary education

Challenges:

  • Limited access to Early Childhood Education (ECE), with only 18% of those enrolled in grade one have had pre-school education, situation worse in rural areas (UNICEF, 2013)
  • Quality of education needs further improvement
  • Secondary and tertiary enrollment rates are still very low, with progression rates between grade 7 to grade 8 are 64.5% and 46.2% from grade 9 to 10 (7th National Development Plan, 2017)
  • Gender parity drops at secondary school level (84 girls for every 100 boys enrolled)

SDG priorities:

  • Promoting inclusive and integrated Early Childhood Development including Early Childhood Education
  • Increasing progression rates between primary and senior secondary schools (Primary net enrollment 89%, secondary education net enrollment 28.1% - 2015).
  • Increasing enrollment in tertiary institutions (7.6% tertiary completion rate – 2010) 
  • Increasing access, participation, quality and relevance of education 
  • Increasing equity in formal and informal education
  • Enhancing access to skills training by rolling out and scaling up the new curriculum that integrates Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) with general education

Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Progress:

  • Improvement in gender parity in primary school enrollment and literacy

Challenges:

  • Women have fewer decision making positions compared to men at all levels
  • Women are disproportionately affected by high unemployment and poverty, resulting in greater income inequality
  • Women have differentiated access to credit, land and extension services, which constrain agricultural productivity and other economic activities
  • High rates of teen pregnancies and child marriages

SDG Priorities:

  • Focusing on gender parity in secondary and tertiary education
  • Addressing issues hampering girl-child education including preventing teenage pregnancies and ending child marriages
  • Strengthening female participation and leadership including political participation
  • Improving women’s and girls' equal access to education, health care, and decent work
  • Scaling-up women’s economic empowerment programmes, gender mainstreaming

Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation

Progress:

  • Increased access to improved water sources (58% in 2006 to 67.7% in 2015),

Challenges:

  • Uneven access to improved water sources between urban (89.2%) and rural areas (51.6%)
  • Low access to improved sources of sanitation (40% of households in 2015, 27% of people in urban areas and 85% in rural areas had no access to improved sources of sanitation in 2015)
  • Decline in quality of water sanitation facilities in urban areas due to increase in informal settlements, cost of sanitation infrastructure, low private sector investment owing to low investment returns in the sector
  • Deforestation adversely affecting water catchment areas and thus is a growing concern

SDG Priorities:

  • Increasing levels of access to clean and safe water and sanitation services for people in rural and urban areas
  • Improving availability of water and sanitation infrastructure
  • Improving provision of solid waste management services 
  • Enhancing research in water supply and sanitation services

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Progress:

  • Increased investment in expanding power generation
  • Access to electricity for households nationally improved from 22% in 2010 to 31% in 2015

Challenges:

  • Lack of diversification of the energy mix with overreliance on hydro-electricity
  • Limited access to energy resources particularly in rural areas where access to electricity stands at only about 4.4% (2015)
  • Low energy efficiency among energy consumers

SDG priorities:

  • Scaling-up investment in electricity generation
  • Diversifying the energy mix with more focus on renewable energy
  • Working towards improving energy management practices and improving efficiency in energy utilization

Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work

Progress:

  • Transitioned to a lower middle-income country
  • Opening of international financial markets
  • Inflows of FDI to the mining sector

Challenges:

  • Continued heavy reliance on copper mining for export revenue
  • Reduced access to lending and ODA
  • Low employment creation and high levels of informal work (84% of working population in informal sector (91.2% females, 75.8% males) (2014 Labour Force Survey)
  • High youth unemployment rate (10.5% in 2014, rural youth unemployment rate 6.4%, urban youth unemployment rate 15.2%)

SDG priorities:

  • Promoting economic and export diversification
  • Diversifying the economy away from mining, re-focusing on agriculture and tourism sectors for poverty reduction and employment creation
  • Implementing employment creation interventions that reduce informality of work and improve decent work conditions, especially in rural areas
  • Creating an enabling environment for sustainable and inclusive social economic development, through, among other things, development of linkages
  • Facilitating micro, small, and medium enterprise and cooperatives development
  • Promoting entrepreneurship skills training and development 
  • Advancing Labour Law reform

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and foster innovation

Progress:

  • Improved trade facilitation infrastructure, especially roads
  • Improved quality of infrastructure (nationally)

Challenges:

  • Limited investment in other trade facilitation infrastructure (railways, border posts)
  • Limited investment in technology, innovation, research and development (Zambia ranked 125th out of 128 countries in the 2016 Global Innovation Index (7NDP Vol 1)
  • Weak intersectoral linkages

SDG priorities:

  • Scaling-up investment in trade facilitation infrastructure
  • Scaling-up investment in technology, innovation, research and development
  • Strengthening intersectoral linkages (e.g. between manufacturing and primary agriculture)
  • Promoting industrial upgrading

Reduce inequality within and among countries

Challenges: 

  • Large inequalities between rural and urban areas, including income inequalities (Gini coefficient increased from 0.60 in 2006 to 0.69 in 2015)

SDG priorities:

  • Reducing gender and income inequalities – enhancing income opportunities, addressing infrastructure deficits, and ensuring access to services for poor and marginalized groups
  • Reducing inequalities faced by the elderly and disabled
  • Promoting integrated rural development - infrastructure, services, etc.
  • Promoting urban and peri-urban economies

Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Progress:

  • Increased appreciation of the concept of green buildings and planned settlements
  • Increase in number of planned settlements in selected cities

Challenges: 

  • Increase in number of unplanned settlements in selected cities
  • Limited investment in green buildings and low cost housing

SDG priorities:

  • Promoting the concept of green buildings and planned settlements 
  • Increasing investment in green buildings and low cost housing
  • Promoting private sector investment in planned settlements
  • Promoting low cost, modern building technologies

Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Progress:

  • Organic and climate smart agriculture and processing poised for growth

Challenges:

  • Climate shocks negatively affecting yield rates for crops
  • Decline in quantities of fish harvested
  • Destructive fishing methods

SDG priorities:

  • Promoting organic, climate smart agriculture
  • Diversifying the agriculture sector
  • Promoting sustainable, non-destructive fishing methods

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Progress:

  • Ratification of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)
  • Resource mobilization for priorities in the NDC
  • Reduction in rate of deforestation

Challenges:

  • Effects of climate change: droughts, rising temperatures, unpredictable rainfall patterns -  affecting the economy and people’s livelihoods
  • Impact of climate change costs Zambia 0.4% of annual growth, with ability to increase to 0.9%

SDG priorities:

  • Undertaking climate change mitigation and adaptation measures to promote social well-being, including better health, growth of the economy, and reduction of environmental risks such as shortage of water, air pollution, and other effects

Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

N/A

Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems

Progress:

  • Establishment of an Environment Protection Fund

Challenges:

  • High rate of deforestation

SDG priorities:

  • Improving reforestation and sustainable practices
  • Increasing investments environmental restoration, including reforestation, through the Environment Protection Fund

Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Progress:

  • Amendment of the Zambian Constitution
  • Establishment of the Small Claims Court

Challenges:

  • Inadequacies and inconsistencies in the regulatory framework and policy environment, access to justice, transparency and accountability, democratization and slow place of implementation of decentralization reforms
  • High level of corruption (38/100 on Corruption Perception Index and 76th out of 138 countries)

SDG priorities:

  • Improving the policy environment
  • Improving transparency and accountability in the delivery of public services
  • Establishing an inclusive democratic system of governance
  • Improving rule of law, human rights, and constitutionalism
  • Enhancing national value, principles, and ethics
  • Strengthening governance and anti-corruption systems
  • Fast-tracking implementation of the Decentralization Policy

Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development

Progress and Challenges:

  • Opportunity to further develop public private partnerships

SDG Priorities:

  • Foster partnerships to achieve sustainable development priorities and business benefits
  • Greater fostering of partnerships with government, civil society, private sector, and the UN system

Philanthropy in Zambia

Zambian philanthropy has a very diverse nature which offers many assets critical to the implementation of the SDGs, including knowledge of local conditions, technical skills, as well as resources and a strong commitment to find and apply innovative approaches.

The philanthropy sector is Zambia is diverse and comprises various actors and stakeholders. Many organizations have a philanthropic focus, however, most operate more as NGOs and are grouped under CSOs networks. International foundations often do not have a representation in-country.

The work of local philanthropy focuses predominantly on project implementation through donor funding, with small operations or service delivery activities. The private sector and faith based local and international organizations and groups are other sectors that have philanthropic arms or engage in philanthropic initiatives and have widespread operations across the country which is complementing and supporting government’s development efforts. Opportunities for creating synergies with government in programming, activity implementation as well as monitoring and evaluation, therefore, do exist. Further, while there are coalitions and some collaboration among selected organisations based on sectoral interests or otherwise, opportunities for further collaboration for enhanced delivery and greater development impact across a broader spectrum of organisations at thematic, sectoral and programme levels do exist.

Navigating the Landscape

What you need to know about doing philanthropy in Zambia

Legal structures

NGOs Zambia

The Development Agenda and SDGs

Philanthropy must keep within global, national and subnational levels of governance and accountability that influence development priorities and structures.

SDG logo

The SDG Process in Zambia

1

Planning

2

Implementation

3

Monitoring